Rift Valley Fever Virus
Rift Valley fever (RVF), is an emerging zoonotic, mosquito-borne viral disease that primarily affects livestock but can also affect humans. The disease causes significant loss to livestock and severe illness and death in humans, having a significant economic impact in countries where RVF is prevalent.
RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which was first recognised in the 1930s in the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Rift Valley fever virus is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, which is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. It is an arthropod-borne virus that is transmitted to domesticated livestock by mosquitoes. Several species of mosquito transmit RVFV, and the vector varies according to the geographical region. Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are particularly susceptible to RVF and serve as amplifying hosts for the virus. Reports of RVFV outbreaks outside sub-Saharan Africa have raised concerns that RVFV may spread to temperate climates through emerging competent vectors.
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