ENTEROVIRUS ANTIGEN, RECOMBINANT
Enterovirus antigen, recombinant protein has been manufactured in E. coli for use in immunoassay development or other research applications.
PRODUCT DETAILS – ENTEROVIRUS ANTIGEN, RECOMBINANT
- Recombinant enterovirus antigen
- Expressed in E. coli and purified by chromatography
- Individually pooled antigens shown to react with QC serum panel (multiple negative, borderline and positive sera) within defined reactivity range in Coxsackie-/Echovirus IgA, IgG and IgM ELISA.
- For immunoassay development or other applications.
Enteroviruses are picornaviruses (pico, or small, RNA viruses), approximately 25-30 nm in diameter, and icosahedral in shape. The viruses are non-enveloped, and the virions are relatively simple, consisting of a protein capsid surrounding a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. The genome has approximately 7500 nucleotides, and contains a single open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein that is then processed to yield the structural (i.e., capsid) proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 and the non-structural proteins (Hellen and Wimmer, 1995).
They include Coxsackieviruses A1 to A21, A24, and B1 to 6; Echoviruses (enteric cytopathic human orphan viruses) 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; Enteroviruses 68 to 71, 73 to 91, and 100 to 101; and Polioviruses types 1 to 3. Enteroviruses are shed in respiratory secretions and stool and sometimes are present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients. They are usually transmitted by direct contact with respiratory secretions or stool but can be transmitted by contamination (e.g. water). (Tesini, 2019)
A number of viruses are known to induce parkinsonism (Parkinson-like disease), including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses (Jang et al., 2009) and viruses may be associated with other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis (Zhou et al., 2013). It has been suggested that an enterovirus infection in Parkinson’s disease may act as a seed for the replication of misfolded α-synuclein protein as well as a direct cytopathic effect of a virus infection on neurons (Dourmashkin et al., 2018).
- Dourmashkin et al. (2018). Virus-like particles and enterovirus antigen found in the brainstem neurons of Parkinson’s disease. F1000Res. 7: 302.
- Hellen and Wimmer (1995) Enterovirus genetics. in Human enterovirus infections. ed Rotbart H. A. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C), pp 25–72.
- Jang et al. (2009). Viral parkinsonism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1792(7):714-21.
- Tesini BL. (2019). Overview of Enterovirus Infections. MSD Manual.