RUBELLA VIRUS IgG ELISA
This Rubella Virus IgG ELISA is intended for the quantitative determination of IgG class antibodies against Rubella Virus in human serum or plasma (citrate, heparin).
Microplates are coated with specific antigens to bind corresponding antibodies of the sample. After washing the wells to remove all unbound sample material a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled conjugate is added. This conjugate binds to the captured antibodies. In a second washing step unbound conjugate is removed. The immune complex formed by the bound conjugate is visualized by adding Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate which gives a blue reaction product. The intensity of this product is proportional to the amount of specific antibodies in the sample. Sulphuric acid is added to stop the reaction. This produces a yellow endpoint colour. Absorbance at 450/620 nm is read using an ELISA microwell plate reader.
- High sensitivity – 100%
- High specificity – 100%
- Short assay time – <3 hours
- 1 x 96 tests
Rubella virus is an enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the genus Rubivirus, which belongs to the Togaviridae family. It consists of three structural proteins: a capsid protein and two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, E1 and E2, localized in the virus envelope (Oker-Blom, et al., 1983). Humans are the only known host of Rubella virus and infection is spread from person-to-person via respiratory aerosol droplets.
First isolated in 1962, Rubella virus is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease known as Rubella or German Measles. Rubella is an acute self-limiting and generally mild disease predominantly affecting children and young adults. The infection can be asymptomatic in some cases or may cause a mild fever with symptoms of malaise, conjunctivitis and a maculopapular rash (Lambert, N).
However, Rubella virus contracted during the first trimester of pregnancy is of significant health concern, as it can be passed to the foetus in approximately 90% of cases (WHO). Rubella infection in the foetus can result in miscarriage, foetal death or multiple congenital defects referred to as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Congenital defects associated with CRS commonly affect hearing, sight, heart and brain. Other life-long conditions associated with CRS include autism, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus (CDC).
Rubella infection and vaccination provide >95% chance of developing lifetime immunity. Vaccination, using a live attenuated strain of the virus, has significantly reduced the risk of developing Rubella, and CRS, in countries where a well-established vaccination program is in place. However, many countries still do not include Rubella vaccination in their National immunization programme and women of childbearing age are at high risk of developing Rubella in these areas.
- Oker-Blom, C., Kalkkinen, N., Kääriäinen, L. & Pettersson, R., 1983. Rubella virus contains one capsid protein and three envelope glycoproteins, E1, E2a, and E2b. J. Virol., Volume 964–973, p. 964–973.
- Lambert N, Strebel P, Orenstein W, Icenogle J, Poland GA. (2015) Rubella. Lancet. Jun 6;385(9984):2297-307.
- World Health Organization: Factsheet/Rubella
THIS ELISA ASSAY IS FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY. IT IS NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES.