RABBIT IgG ANTI-SARS-COV-2 SPIKE (S1) ANTIBODY (CR3022)
Anti SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S1) is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that recognizes the the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein, the causative agent of COVID-19. Antibody binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity at amino acids 318-510 (RBD, Receptor Binding Domain) in the S1 subunit of the Spike protein.
PRODUCT DETAILS – RABBIT IgG ANTI-SARS-COV-2 SPIKE (S1)
- This anti SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG antibody binds the amino acids 318-510 in the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV Spike protein as well as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike protein.
- This chimeric rabbit antibody was made using the variable domain sequences of the original Human IgG1 format.
- The original monoclonal antibody was generated by collecting peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient exposed to the SARS-CoV.
- Protein A affinity purified from culture supernatant.
- Suitable for use in ELISA, NTRL, SPR, Crystallography.
Human coronaviruses are the major cause of upper respiratory tract illness. They are positive-stranded RNA viruses, and contain the largest viral RNA genomes known to date (27-31 kb). SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and COVID-19 are both caused by human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 shares 82% nucleotide identity with human SARS-CoV and 89% with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 (Lu et al., 2020; Zhou et al., 2020). However, initially it displayed lower pathogenicity and higher human to human transmissibility (Li et al., 2020). The coronavirus genome encodes four structural proteins: the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, membrane (M) protein, and the envelope (E) protein. Cell entry is the first step in cross-species transmission and SARS-CoV-2 is likely to infect lung type II alveolar cells, which may explain the severe alveolar damage observed after infection (Zhao et al., 2020). Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike (S) protein to gain entry into host cells and it has been shown that the spike binds the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on infected cells. It is predicted that SARS-CoV-2 recognizes human ACE2 more efficiently than SARS -CoV (Wan et al., 2020). Therefore, the S protein is considered a key target for vaccine development (Li et al, 2020).
This recombinant antibody binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with high affinity; 86% of the epitope residues are conserved between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (Tian et al., 2020; Yuan et al., 2020). The binding site is amino acids 318-510 (RBD, Receptor Binding Domain) in the S1 subunit of the Spike protein (Yuan et al., 2020). The antibody also binds to P462L-substituted S318–510 fragments of the SARS spike protein (Joyce et al. 2020). The crystal structure of this antibody has been resolved in complex with the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The spike binding epitope is only accessible in the “open” conformation of the spike protein. The epitope can only be accessed by the antibody when at least two RBD on the trimeric spike protein are in the “up” conformation and slightly rotated (Joyce et al. 2020; Yuan et al., 2020). Antibody was originally isolated from a convalescent SARS patient, and is a neutralizing antibody that targets the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV (ter Meulen, 2006). It did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in an in vitro assay, although it may show neutralisation in combination with other antibodies (Yuan et al., 2020). It has been shown to work synergistically in combination with antibodies that target the ACE2 binding site on the SARS-CoV RBD and reduce viral escape capacity. This antibody does not compete with ACE2 for binding to RBD, unlike most other known SARS RBD-targeted antibodies (ter Meulen, 2006). The epitope of this antibody does not overlap with the SARS-CoV-2 ACE2 binding site (Tian et al., 2020).
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- ter Meulen J, van den Brink EN, Poon LL, et al. Human monoclonal antibody combination against SARS coronavirus: synergy and coverage of escape mutants. PLoS Med. 2006;3(7):e237.
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- Yuan M, Wu NC, Zhu X, et al. A highly conserved cryptic epitope in the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Science. 2020;eabb7269.
- Zhao et al. (2020). Single -cell RNA 2expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019 -nCov. BioRxiv.
- Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270–273.