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Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by ticks. CCHF virus responsible for severe outbreaks in humans with a high case fatality ratio of 10-40%. CCHF is endemic in all of Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and in Asia.

Using our mammalian expression system, we have developed CCHF glycoprotein and nucleoprotein antigens, both of which may be used to detect serological responses to infection.

CCHF Background

Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne infection that is geographically widespread across Africa, Asian, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. It is caused by Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) – an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Nairovirus and Bunyaviridae family.

The CCHF virus is primarily maintained in domestic animals and livestock by ticks of the Hyalomma genus (1). However, the virus can be transmitted to humans by CCHFV-infected ticks or through contact with CCHFV-infected animal tissue. Human-to-human transmission can also occur which poses a significant risk to healthcare workers.

In humans, the incubation period of the virus varies with route of exposure. Whilst infected animals remain asymptomatic, CCHFV infection in humans results in a range of clinical symptoms including fever, myalgia, nausea, and headaches before the disease progresses to the haemorrhagic stage (2). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), CCHF can be fatal in 10-40% of cases (3).

Since CCHF was first described in Crimea, in 1944, sporadic outbreaks have occurred globally. In 2015, CCHFV was characterised by the WHO as an emerging virus, likely to cause a severe epidemic and which may present a public health emergency (4). Currently, CCHF viral infection is diagnosed by isolating the virus in early stages of the infection and then by serology, immunofluorescence and molecular techniques. While prophylactic vaccines are in development a safe and effective vaccine has not yet been licensed for use in humans.

References

  1. Spengler, J.R. et al (2016) Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 7:10(1):e0004210.
  2. Shayan, S. et al (2015) Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Lab Med. 46:180-9.
  3. World Health Organization – Media centre: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
  4. WHO list of top emerging diseases

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Antigens

We offer two antigens for CCHFV: glycoprotein N and nucleoprotein, for studies on CCHF biology and serological responses to infection. Both are prepared in our proprietary mammalian cell expression system to ensure correct glycosylation and native folding.

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