0 Items
Select Page

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcal food poisoning results from the consumption of foods containing sufficient amounts of one, or more preformed enterotoxins. Food poisoning is characterised by rapid onset and symptoms including nausea, violent vomiting and abdominal cramping, with or without diarrhoea.

The Native Antigen Company offers an extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies to several types of Staphylococcus enterotoxin.

Staphylococcus Background

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium, that is a member of the Staphylococcus genus, which belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae. First recognised in 1880, S. aureus exists in many individuals as part of the normal microbiota, inhabiting the skin, nasal passages and respiratory tract. Pathogenic S. aureus secrete a range of potent toxins, which are a major cause of many pathogenic conditions in humans worldwide.

Enterotoxins, produced by S. aureus, are a major cause of food poisoning and over 30 enterotoxins have been identified to date. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and SEA are recognised as the most potent enterotoxins within the Staphylococcal toxin family. SEB and SEA enterotoxin also act as a potent bacterial superantigen, binding to and stimulating T lymphocytes and major histocompatibility antigens (MHC) on antigen presenting cells of the immune system. Two separate domains of the 28kDa SEB protein are responsible for the two different functions of the toxin (Fries, B).

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins G and I have been associated with minor food poisoning outbreaks in Taiwan. Both toxins are heat-stable and are transmitted to humans via contaminated foods including meat, meat products and unpasteurised dairy products. Both enterotoxin I and G have also been linked to cases of toxic shock syndrome, Staphylococcal scarlet fever and neonatal enteropathy.

SEB and SEA are considered to be major causes of food-borne, infection-causing food poisoning. The clinical symptoms of intoxication include fever, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhoea, headaches and in some cases shock. Currently there is no specific treatment for SEB or SEA mediated disease or shock. The condition is often self-limiting, but support with hydration is often required. Currently, no licensed vaccine or antitoxin has been successfully developed (Ortega E).

References

  1. Fries BC, Varshney AK. 2013. Bacterial Toxins-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B. Microbiol Spectr. Dec;1(2)
  2. Ortega E, Abriouel H, Lucas R, Gálvez A. 2010. Multiple roles of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins

Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies

We are pleased to offer a wide range of antibodies, specific to different S. aureus enterotoxins to provide a range of options for studying these bacteria. Our Staphylococcus antibodies include examples specific to enterotoxin A, B, E and I.

Questions?

Check out our FAQ section for answers to the most frequently asked questions about our website and company.

Going Viral

This article is taken from European Biopharmaceutical Review January 2020, pages 44-46. © Samedan Ltd.The Dengue VirusDengue is the world’s most prevalent and consequential arboviral disease. Current estimates indicate that as many as 390 million dengue infections...

Why We Need New Diagnostics for the Zika Virus

This article has been published in Volume 2, Issue 3 of the IBI journal.While Zika is no longer in the public eye, it hasn’t vanished. Recent outbreaks across Asia and Africa are reminders that Zika is alive and well, and with no effective countermeasures...

Clostridium difficile Toxins: The Nuts and Bolts

In this blog, we describe the mechanisms of action of the Clostridium difficile A and B toxins, and discuss their use in research and medicine. The Native Antigen Company provides biologically active C. diff toxins, as well as inactivated toxoids for a range of...

Where Are We At with CMV Vaccine Development?

In this blog, we discuss the need for a CMV vaccine, the current vaccine strategies that are in development, and introduce our range of CMV antigens and antibodies.Cytomegalovirus The human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an enveloped, icosahedral 150-200nm pleomorphic...

Paper Synopsis: Measles Induces Immune Amnesia

In the midst of widespread concern about growing anti-vaccination sentiments, worldwide, a study published this month suggests that Measles virus infection can also ablate acquired immunity to other diseases. In this blog, we introduce the concept of immune amnesia,...

Get in Touch

We sometimes send exclusive information and offers to our customers - please let us know if you are happy to receive these

15 + 2 =

Live Customer Feedback

Join our mailing list

* indicates required