0 Items
Select Page

Norovirus

Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis. Infection is characterised by diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Norovirus results in about 685 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths globally a year.

The Native Antigen Company offers both recombinant norovirus antigens and highly specific antibodies to support research and assay development into Norovirus biology and infection.

 

Norovirus Background

Norovirus (NoV) is a small non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Caliciviridae family of viruses. Six norovirus genogroups have been identified to date, which are further subdivided into genotypes. NoVs have a high mutation rate and numerous genotypes have been identified. NoVs responsible for human disease are found within genogroups G11, G1 and GIV. The variant GII.4 has been identified as the most common cause of Norovirus outbreaks since 2002. (Karst, S.M.)

Previously known as Norwalk virus, NoV is a major cause of non-bacterial outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus can infect individuals of all ages and is a major cause of gastroenteritis in contained environments, such as schools, care-homes, hospitals and cruise ships. Symptoms of NoV infection develop rapidly and include vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea (Robilotti, et al.). In most cases, NoV infection is a self-limiting disease that may last 1-3 days, but can cause complications in very young, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. In some severe cases, NoV infection can result in dehydration, hospitalisation and death (CDC).

NoV is highly contagious. It can persist in the environment and is resistant to most household disinfectants. Transmission of NoV primarily occurs through the faecal-oral route and through contact with infected individuals, contaminated clothing, surfaces, food and water. In the USA, NoV is the leading source of food related illness (CDC).

Diagnosis of NoV infection is commonly performed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Enzyme-linked immunoassays are also employed to detect NoV in stool samples, but are reported to lack sensitivity. Currently, no licensed vaccine is available for the prevention of NoV infection. However, recent reports suggest that significant progress is being made to develop a vaccine that may provide short term immunity against GI.1 and GII.4 NoV genotypes (Takeda).

References

  1. Karst SM. (2010). Pathogenesis of noroviruses, emerging RNA viruses. Viruses.Mar;2(3):748-81. PMID: 21994656
  2. Robilotti E, Deresinski S, Pinsky BA. (2015). Norovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev.Jan;28(1):134-64. PMID: 25567225
  3. Centers for disease control and prevention: Norovirus, Clinical overview
  4. Centers for disease control and prevention: Norovirus, Burden of norovirus illness and outbreaks
  5. Takeda press release: Takeda initiates world’s first norovirus vaccine field trial

Norovirus Antigens

The Native Antigen Company produce Norovirus VP1 protein in mammalian and insect cell expression systems, which produces intact virus-like particles (VLPs) of very high purity. The Norovirus VP1 protein self-assembles to form the Norovirus virion, containing 180 copies of the protein. These VLPs are suitable for studies of VP1 structure and as targets for serological assays.

Norovirus Antibodies

We offer monoclonal Norovirus antibodies that are specific to either the GI or GII genotypes of Norovirus, allowing customers to determine the source of an infection and study Norovirus biology.

Questions?

Check out our FAQ section for answers to the most frequently asked questions about our website and company.

Going Viral

This article is taken from European Biopharmaceutical Review January 2020, pages 44-46. © Samedan Ltd.The Dengue VirusDengue is the world’s most prevalent and consequential arboviral disease. Current estimates indicate that as many as 390 million dengue infections...

Why We Need New Diagnostics for the Zika Virus

This article has been published in Volume 2, Issue 3 of the IBI journal.While Zika is no longer in the public eye, it hasn’t vanished. Recent outbreaks across Asia and Africa are reminders that Zika is alive and well, and with no effective countermeasures...

Clostridium difficile Toxins: The Nuts and Bolts

In this blog, we describe the mechanisms of action of the Clostridium difficile A and B toxins, and discuss their use in research and medicine. The Native Antigen Company provides biologically active C. diff toxins, as well as inactivated toxoids for a range of...

Where Are We At with CMV Vaccine Development?

In this blog, we discuss the need for a CMV vaccine, the current vaccine strategies that are in development, and introduce our range of CMV antigens and antibodies.Cytomegalovirus The human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an enveloped, icosahedral 150-200nm pleomorphic...

Paper Synopsis: Measles Induces Immune Amnesia

In the midst of widespread concern about growing anti-vaccination sentiments, worldwide, a study published this month suggests that Measles virus infection can also ablate acquired immunity to other diseases. In this blog, we introduce the concept of immune amnesia,...

Get in Touch

We sometimes send exclusive information and offers to our customers - please let us know if you are happy to receive these

9 + 5 =

Live Customer Feedback

Join our mailing list

* indicates required