0 Items
Select Page

Virus Receptors

The Native Antigen Company manufacturers highly purified virus-host cell receptors using state-of-the-art expression and purification techniques. On request we can also undertake custom preparation of recombinant and native proteins for a broad range of disease states.

Virus Receptors Background

Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens and consequently need to gain entry into a host cell for completion of their life cycle. In order to enter to a cell, viruses attach to specific receptor molecules on the cell surface; molecules which also play an important role in normal cell function. These attachment factors are usually small, charged proteins, lipids, or sugar moieties to which virus particles can bind electrostatically (Boulant, et al., 2015). Different viruses have evolved complex mechanisms to bind to these membrane-associated proteins and gain access to the cell interior. Its currently unknown why certain receptors are preferred by certain viruses, although in some instances the same molecules are targeted by different virus families. Generally though, it has been shown that compared to other membrane proteins, virus receptors have more protein domains, a higher level of N-glycosylation, a higher ratio of self-interaction, more interaction partners and higher expression levels in most of the host tissues (Zhang, et al., 2018).

Enveloped viruses attach to the receptors on the surface of a cell. Secondary receptors may also be utilised to puncture the membrane or for fusion with the host cell. Following attachment, the viral envelope fuses with the host cell membrane, ferrying the naked virus particles into the cell. Viruses may also use different receptors depending on the target cell type and can also enter the cell through endocytosis. Containment within endosomes provides low pH conditions and exposure to proteases which are required to open the viral capsid and release the genetic material inside. Endosomes then transport the virus through the cell and ensure that no trace of the virus is left on the surface, helping to prevent immune recognition (Knipe & Howley, 2013).

Non-enveloped viruses enter the cell through endocytosis where they are ingested by the host cell through the cell membrane. In this case the virus attaches itself onto surface receptors and is engulfed by the cell along with other molecules that the cell normally transports across its membrane. Once inside the cell, the virus escapes the transport vesicle and is freed into the cytoplasm to continue its journey. Attachment to receptors also allows some viruses to directly inject their DNA into the host-cell (Knipe & Howley, 2013).

Consequently, receptor expression on specific cells and tissues of a host is a major determinant of the route of entry of a virus into the host and of the patterns of virus spread and pathogenesis once in the host. Therefore, it is not surprising that many antiviral therapies have focussed on disrupting viral entry mechanisms, often based on the administration of soluble receptors, receptor ligands or antibodies for blocking attachment.

References

Boulant, S., Stanifer, M. & Lozach, P. Y., 2015. Dynamics of Virus-Receptor Interactions in Virus Binding, Signaling, and Endocytosis. Viruses, 7(6), p. 2794–2815.

Knipe, D. M. & Howley, P., 2013. Fields Virology. Sixth ed. LWW.

Zhang, Z., Zhu, Z., et al., 2018. Cell membrane proteins with high N-glycosylation, high expression, and multiple interaction partners are preferred by mammalian viruses as receptors. Bioinformatics.

Virus Receptors

Human cell surface receptors (CSRs) are as key proteins for the development of novel therapeutics. To support research in this area, we have produced a panel of recombinant human CSRs that are known to mediate virus entry. In many cases, we also provide the viral proteins that bind the corresponding CSR for molecular interaction studies.

Questions?

Check out our FAQ section for answers to the most frequently asked questions about our website and company.

Going Viral

This article is taken from European Biopharmaceutical Review January 2020, pages 44-46. © Samedan Ltd.The Dengue VirusDengue is the world’s most prevalent and consequential arboviral disease. Current estimates indicate that as many as 390 million dengue infections...

Why We Need New Diagnostics for the Zika Virus

This article has been published in Volume 2, Issue 3 of the IBI journal.While Zika is no longer in the public eye, it hasn’t vanished. Recent outbreaks across Asia and Africa are reminders that Zika is alive and well, and with no effective countermeasures...

Clostridium difficile Toxins: The Nuts and Bolts

In this blog, we describe the mechanisms of action of the Clostridium difficile A and B toxins, and discuss their use in research and medicine. The Native Antigen Company provides biologically active C. diff toxins, as well as inactivated toxoids for a range of...

Where Are We At with CMV Vaccine Development?

In this blog, we discuss the need for a CMV vaccine, the current vaccine strategies that are in development, and introduce our range of CMV antigens and antibodies.Cytomegalovirus The human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an enveloped, icosahedral 150-200nm pleomorphic...

Paper Synopsis: Measles Induces Immune Amnesia

In the midst of widespread concern about growing anti-vaccination sentiments, worldwide, a study published this month suggests that Measles virus infection can also ablate acquired immunity to other diseases. In this blog, we introduce the concept of immune amnesia,...

Get in Touch

We sometimes send exclusive information and offers to our customers - please let us know if you are happy to receive these

14 + 2 =

Live Customer Feedback

Join our mailing list

* indicates required