0 Items
Select Page

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and unvaccinated) person ingests food or water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person. The spread of disease is closely linked to unsafe water and food, or inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A infection does not cause chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal, but can cause debilitating symptoms and fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure), which is often fatal.

The Native Antigen Company offer a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to the hepatitis A virus, to facilitate research and assay development.

Hepatitis A Background

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus and member of the Hepatovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. One serotype and six genotypes, I to VI, of HAV have been defined. Genotypes I, II and III are known to infect humans and are further divided into subtypes A and B. Infection with any of these subtypes provides an individual with lifelong immunity against all HAV viruses that affect humans.

Humans are a natural reservoir for hepatitis A virus. Transmission of occurs primarily via the oral-faecal route through ingestion of HAV contaminated food and water, or through direct contact with an individual infected with HAV. In developing countries, Hepatitis A virus infection commonly occurs in children and is associated with poor sanitation and low socio-economic status. In developed countries, cases of HAV infection may occur in young adults that are in high-risk groups such as care workers, people who inject drugs and individuals travelling from HAV endemic countries.

HAV is thermostable and resistant to treatment with acids, ethers and disinfectants. The hepatitis A virus infects the liver and replicates in hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation. During the incubation stage of HAV infection, an infected individual may be asymptomatic, but virus particles are actively shed and can be present in the patient’s stools. A range of non-specific clinical symptoms may then develop, which include nausea, vomiting, joint pain, malaise, fatigue and fever. Additional symptoms that can occur include cough, pharyngitis, itchiness and hives. As the infection develops, the patient becomes jaundiced and, in some cases, hepatomegaly occurs. The mortality rate associated with HAV infection is low, but complications can lead to acute liver failure and death in a small percentage of cases. Although effective vaccines for the prevention of HAV infection are available, there is currently no specific treatment for patients infected with HAV (WHO).

References

  1. World Health Organization: Hepatitis A, key facts
  2. Hepatitis A Antibodies

Hepatitis A Antibodies

The Native Antigen company offers a range of monoclonal antibodies specific to the hepatitis A virus, offering a panel suitable for the development of immunoassays. These include a Hepatitis A antibody specific to the VP3 capsid polypeptide antigen, which has been shown to have neutralising activity.

Questions?

Check out our FAQ section for answers to the most frequently asked questions about our website and company.

Diagnosing HIV in resource-limited settings

In this blog, we discuss the need for improved point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics for HIV and present the virus's cellular mechanism to illustrate our new range of HIV antigens and antibodies. HIV in the developed world On June 5th 1981 in Los Angeles, California, 5...

Our Product Pipeline

If you’ve been following us on social media recently, you might have noticed that we’ve been releasing a lot of new antigens and antibodies. In this blog, we explain how we use the WHO R&D Blueprint to guide our product development and present some highlights from...

From Outbreak to Epidemic: A Short History of The Ebola Virus

In the first of a two-part series, we discuss the history of the Ebola virus up to the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and why this disease has been so challenging to fight. The 2014/15 epidemic In the summer of 2014, the world watched as the...

ELISA Formats for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

The field of diagnostics is rapidly developing, yet ELISA and PCR methods remain the most commonly used techniques in the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections. In this blog, we discuss the advantages of using serological methods over molecular, PCR-based...

The world’s most extensive range of NS1-specific antibodies for flavivirus research

The Native Antigen Company first gained prominence in 2016, when it developed highly pure Zika virus NS1 protein during the 2015/2016 epidemic. Since then, the company has developed an extensive range of highly specific antigens, antibodies and immunoassays for...

Get in Touch

We sometimes send exclusive information and offers to our customers - please let us know if you are happy to receive these

8 + 15 =

Live Customer Feedback

Join our mailing list

* indicates required