0 Items
Select Page

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus. HEV is currently the only representative of the hepevirus genus, belonging to the family Hepeviridae. Four genotypes 1-4 of the Hepatitis E virus have been identified so far, with each genotype having a different geographical distribution. Transmission of HEV primarily occurs via the faecal-oral route, through contaminated food or water, but can be transmitted through blood transfusion products in some cases.

In healthy individuals, Hepatitis E is an asymptomatic or self-limiting disease. However, patient with a pre-existing chronic liver disease and pregnant women have an increased risk of liver failure and death. Diagnosis of HEV is achieved using serological and molecular methods of detection.

Hepatitis E Background

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus. HEV is currently the only representative of the hepevirus genus, belonging to the family Hepeviridae. Four genotypes 1-4 of the Hepatitis E virus have been identified so far, with each genotype having a different geographical distribution. HEV genotype 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and are found in Africa and Asia, whereas genotype 3 is found worldwide and genotype 4 is found in China and Japan. Both genotypes 3 and 4 generally circulate in animals including pigs, wild boar, deer and rabbits but can also infect humans (WHO).

Transmission of HEV primarily occurs via the faecal-oral route, through contaminated food or water. Infection through contaminated water is a typical route of transmission for HEV genotypes 1 and 2, particularly in endemic areas with poor sanitation. Infections involving HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been linked to the consumption of undercooked pork and meat from infected animals. Reports suggest that HEV may also be transmitted via transfused blood products in areas where the virus is endemic.

In healthy individuals, Hepatitis E is an asymptomatic or self-limiting disease which can last for up to two weeks after the incubation period of 2-9 weeks. Symptoms can include fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, aching joints, slight hepatomegaly and numbness in arms and legs. Immunosuppressed patients infected with HEV may develop chronic liver disease after initial infection. In addition, patient with a pre-existing chronic liver disease and pregnant women have an increased risk of liver failure and death. Reports suggest that the risk of miscarriage, liver failure and death can increase during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

HEV infection emerging as a significant disease of global health concern. Currently there is no effective treatment for HEV infection, although Ribavirin has been shown. to benefit immunosuppressed patients. A single vaccine has been developed and licensed for the prevention of HEV infection, which is under review by the World Health Organization.

 

References

World Health Organization: Fact sheets; Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E Antigens

Our Hepatitis E antigens include highly purified preparations of ORF2 with different purification tags. These antigens are suitable for use in assay development, vaccine research and for the preparation of Hepatitis E antibodies.

Questions?

Check out our FAQ section for answers to the most frequently asked questions about our website and company.

ELISA Formats for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

The field of diagnostics is rapidly developing, yet ELISA and PCR methods remain the most commonly used techniques in the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections. In this blog, we discuss the advantages of using serological methods over molecular, PCR-based...

The world’s most extensive range of NS1-specific antibodies for flavivirus research

The Native Antigen Company first gained prominence in 2016, when it developed highly pure Zika virus NS1 protein during the 2015/2016 epidemic. Since then, the company has developed an extensive range of highly specific antigens, antibodies and immunoassays for...

Flavivirus NS1: A Short Introduction

In the first of a two-part series, we describe the structure of Flavivirus Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) and the role that it plays in viral pathogenesis. Flavivirus proteins Flaviviruses are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses, belonging to the Flaviviridae...

Paper Synopsis: ELISA formats and antibody quenching to reduce ZIKV cross-reactivity

While the 2015/16 Zika epidemic no longer makes the headlines, there remains a crucial need to accurately and reliably diagnose Zika virus (ZIKV) infection to identify and manage further outbreaks. However, high levels of cross-reactivity among cocirculating...

Viral Lysates for Diagnostic Research

We've recently expanded our range of native viral cell lysates to complement our highly pure recombinant antigens. Here, we explain how our lysates are made and their uses in infectious disease R&D.What are viral lysates? Put simply, viral lysates are extracts of...

Get in Touch

We sometimes send exclusive information and offers to our customers - please let us know if you are happy to receive these

10 + 15 =

Live Customer Feedback