Diptheria toxin is an endotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheria. It is a polypeptide chain consisting of two subunits linked by disulphide bridges – in vivo the B subunit binds to the cell surface which facilitates penetration of the cell by the A subunit. The toxin then catalyses ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic aminoacyltransferase II using NAD as the substrate and thereby inhibiting protein synthesis.
The clinical condition resulting from C.diptheria infection is a serious bacterial infection usually affecting the mucous membranes of the nose and throat. Diphtheria typically causes a sore throat, fever, swollen glands and weakness and may result in the patient having difficulty breathing (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diphtheria/basics/definition/con-20022303).
Diphtheria toxin may be used as a toxin element in the construction of immunotoxin for cell specific cytotoxicity. The translocation domain of bacterial toxins with natural endosome escape mechanism has been used in the development of efficient nonviral vectors for applications in gene therapy.
The NAC native diphtheria toxin product is produced by culture of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain NCTC 10648 in optimal growth medium, then harvest, concentration, and purification through several rounds of chromatography. This results in a toxin > 98% pure by SDS-PAGE and of high quality and minimal lot-to-lot variation, suitable for IVD assays, cellular research and in vivo work as exampled here. It is offered in 1mg vial size and the toxin is lyophilised for ease of transportation and storage.