GOAT ANTI-POLIOVIRUS POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY
Goat anti Poliovirus polyclonal antibody IgG fraction is purified from goat anti-serum for use in immunoassay development.
PRODUCT DETAILS – GOAT ANTI-POLIOVIRUS POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY
- Goat anti Poliovirus polyclonal antibody.
- Reacts with multiple antigens of Poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3.
- The IgG fraction is purified from goat anti-serum to >95% purity.
- Presented in PBS, pH 7.2 with 0.1% sodium azide.
The species Enterovirus C (formerly named Human enterovirus C) consists of 23 (sero)types, including poliovirus (PV) 1, PV2, and PV3. Enterovirus C is the type species of the genus Enterovirus (Brown et al., 2003). Wild poliovirus type 2 was declared eradicated in 2015 (CDC, 2019).
Poliovirus, the causative agent of polio (also known as poliomyelitis). Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is about 7500 nucleotides long. The nonenveloped viral particle is about 30 nm in diameter with icosahedral symmetry (Hogle, 2002). There are three serotypes of poliovirus (PV1, PV2, and PV3) and each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. PV1 is the most common form encountered in nature; however, all three forms are extremely infectious. Poliovirus can affect the spinal cord and cause poliomyelitis.
Poliovirus is structurally similar to other human enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses), which also use immunoglobulin-like molecules to recognize and enter host cells. Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD155 (also known as the poliovirus receptor or PVR) on the cell surface. Interaction of poliovirus and CD155 facilitates an irreversible conformational change of the viral particle necessary for viral entry. The particle is taken up by endocytosis and immediately after internalization, the viral RNA is released (Mendelsohn et al., 1989; Brandenburg et al., 2007). Poliovirus mRNA is translated as one long polypeptide. This polypeptide is then autocleaved by internal proteases into about 10 individual viral proteins. Fully assembled poliovirus leaves the host cell by lysis 4 to 6 hours following initiation of infection in cultured mammalian cells releasing up to 10,000 polio virions per cell (Kew et al., 2005).
In humans, poliovirus is ingested, and replicates in cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Newly synthesized virus particles are released into the intestine and shed in the feces. Transmission of poliovirus to another human occurs through contact with virus-containing feces or contaminated water. After multiplying in the gastrointestinal tract, poliovirus may enter the spinal cord and brain. Destruction of motor neurons by the virus leads to limb paralysis.
Two vaccines were developed in the 1950s that can effectively prevent the disease – inactivated poliovaccine (IPV, developed by Jonas Salk) and live, oral poliovaccine (OPV, developed by Albert Sabin). Inactive polio vaccine is prepared by formalin inactivation of three wild, virulent reference strains, Mahoney or Brunenders (PV1), MEF-1/Lansing (PV2), and Saukett/Leon (PV3). Oral polio vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) strains of the three serotypes of poliovirus. Passaging the virus strains in monkey kidney epithelial cells introduces mutations in the viral IRES, and hinders (or attenuates) the ability of the virus to infect nervous tissue (Kew et al., 2005).
- Brandenburg et al. (2007). Imaging poliovirus entry in live cells. PLOS Biology. 5 (7): e183.
- Brown et al. (2003). Complete genomic sequencing shows that polioviruses and members of human enterovirus species C are closely related in the noncapsid coding region. J. Virol. 77: 8973-8984.
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Polio Disease and Poliovirus. July 15, 2019.
- Hogle J (2002). Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways. Annu Rev Microbiol. 56: 677–702.
- Kew et al. (2005). Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio eradication. Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 587–635.
- Mendelsohn et al. (1989). Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a new member of the immunoglobin superfamily. Cell. 56 (5): 855–865.