RABBIT ANTI-ENTEROVIRUS POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY
Rabbit anti Enterovirus polyclonal antibody is ≥95% pure by SDS-PAGE and specific for Enterovirus protein detection.
PRODUCT DETAILS – RABBIT ANTI-ENTEROVIRUS POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY
- Rabbit anti Enterovirus polyclonal antibody.
- Specific for Enterovirus protein detection.
- Polyclonal antibody has been purified in a multi-step procedure. ≥95% pure by SDS-PAGE.
- Presented in PBS, pH 7.4 with 0.09% sodium azide.
Enteroviruses (EV) are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family and are the smallest, non-enveloped viruses known to infect both humans and animals. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of infection. They are common seasonal viruses that are associated with a variety of diseases (ECDC, 2010). They are approximately 25-30 nm in diameter, and icosahedral in shape. The viruses are non-enveloped, and the virions are relatively simple, consisting of a protein capsid surrounding a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. The genome has approximately 7500 nucleotides, and contains a single open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein which is then processed to yield the structural (i.e., capsid) proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 and the non-structural proteins.
Enteroviruses are classified into 4 distinct species (A, B, C and D) (Lugo and Krogstad, 2016). They cause a wide variety of diseases, and it is known that non-polio enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in adults as well as children. EV are responsible for approximately a quarter of adult aseptic meningitis cases with an identified causative agent. Individual EV serotypes are not exclusively associated with particular disease syndromes, but sometimes have a propensity to cause particular symptoms. Echovirus serotypes are frequently reported to be responsible for meningitis, but also are responsible for most enterovirus infections. Among coxsackieviruses, the leading serotypes associated with central nervous system diseases are B1 to B6, A7 and A9. Enterovirus 71 has caused large outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, especially in children in Asia. Some infections from this virus have been associated with severe neurologic disease, such as brainstem encephalitis. Enterovirus D68 caused a nationwide outbreak in 2014 of severe respiratory illness in the United States (CDC, 2018).
As yet, no effective EV-specific antiviral treatments are available, and vaccines are available only against polioviruses. Ongoing experience with EV71 outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region has demonstrated that co-infections with other EV and indeed viruses belonging to other families, is common and raises the possibility that some co-infections can increase the severity of disease and change the clinical presentation.
EV have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins making them ideal targets for anti-virals and neutralising antibodies have been identified which block a receptor-binding site on EV71 VP3 (Jia et al., 2017).
- Factsheet about enteroviruses. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 2010.
- Jia et al. (2017). Effective in vivo therapeutic IgG antibody against VP3 of enterovirus 71 with receptor-competing activity. Sci Rep. 7:46402.
- Lugo and Krogstad (2016). Enteroviruses in the Early 21st Century: New Manifestations and Challenges. Curr Opin Pediatr. 28(1): 107–113.
- Non-Polio Enterovirus. Centres for Disease Control (CDC), 2018.