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HTLV Antigens Now Available

The Native Antigen Company now offers two Envelope proteins for the human T-cell lymphotropic viruses, type one and two.

About the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses

The human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) are a four-member family of human retroviruses that cause a range of pathologies. Discovered as the first retrovirus in 1980, HTLV-1 was mistakenly thought to be the causative agent of AIDS. However, following identification of HIV-1, it became apparent that the retroviruses belonged to different families.

In the years that followed, more HTLVs were discovered and implicated in a range of cancers, as well as neurological, cardiac and inflammatory diseases. HTLV-1 is responsible for the greatest burden of disease, including adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-associated myelopathy. Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have also been linked to an increased incidence of neurologic and autoimmune syndromes, while no specific illnesses have yet been associated with HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.

HTLV-1 predominately infects CD4+ T-cells and can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact, and through contaminated blood products. The virus affects up to 10 million people worldwide with endemic regions of infection in Southwest Japan, sub-Saharan Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and regions of the Middle East and Australo-Melanesia. The major geographic subtypes are Cosmopolitan subtype A, Central African subtype B, Australo-Melanesian subtype C, and Central African/Pygmies subtype D. Cosmopolitan subtype A is the most widespread subtype (endemic subgroups in Japan, Central and South America, the Caribbean, North and West Africa, and regions of the Middle East). Between 1 in 20-25 infected people are thought to develop cancer as a result of the virus.

HTLV-2 is closely related to HTLV-1 and may be linked to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). HTLV-2 is far less prevalent than HTLV-1 with an estimated 800,000 infected individuals worldwide. Most documented HTLV-2 infected individuals are found in the United States, highly concentrated in the Native American and intravenous drug user populations. A similar epidemiologic pattern is found in the second most HTLV-2 infected region, Brazil. HTLV-2 is divided into four molecular subtypes; A, B, C, and D. HTLV-2A and HTLV-2B are commonly found in the Americas and Europe whereas HTLV-2C and HTLV-2D are found predominantly in Brazil and Central Africa. HTLV-2 is associated with milder neurologic disorders and chronic pulmonary infections.

New HTLV Envelope Proteins

To support fundamental research into the HTLVs and the development of diagnostic, therapeutic and vaccine countermeasures, The Native Antigen Company now offers HTLV-1 and -2 Envelope proteins. Envelope glycoproteins (gp46) project from HTLV virions to facilitate receptor recognition and host-cell entry. The Envelope protein is known to recognise three cell-surface receptors: Glucose Transporter (GLUT1), Heparin Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) and the VEGF-165 receptor, Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1).

Diagram of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus

Expressed from our proprietary VirtuE™ HEK293 expression system, these antigens exhibit proper glycosylation and folding to ensure maximal performance in assays. These antigens also include C-terminal sheep Fc-tags for use in assays, and can be used in a range of other applications. For more information on these products, click on the buttons below:

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