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Dengue

Dengue fever is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the most critical mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. More than 40 percent of the world’s population, in more than 100 countries are at risk of dengue infection. The most significant dengue epidemics in recent years have occurred in Southeast Asia, the Americas and the Western Pacific. Each year, an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur around the world. Of these, 500,000 cases develop into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a more severe form of the disease, which results in up to 25,000 deaths annually worldwide.

The Native Antigen Company have an extensive range of Dengue virus proteins, all prepared in our mammalian cell expression system, complemented by a wide range of highly specific monoclonal antibodies. These are widely used by IVD and pharmaceutical companies with manufacturing and R&D.

Dengue virus background

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus, which includes Zika virus, West Nile virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus. Dengue virus infection is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti species. It is a febrile illness that affects infants, young children and adults with symptoms appearing 3-14 days after the infective bite. Symptoms range from mild fever, to incapacitating high fever, with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash. Severe dengue (also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever) is a potentially lethal complication that is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding and breathing difficulty (1). Dengue virus infection is caused by any one of four related viruses DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4, also referred to as serotypes, which co-circulate in endemic areas. Infection with one dengue serotype confers lifelong immunity but subsequent infection with other dengue serotypes is associated with an increased risk of developing severe dengue disease. Early clinical diagnosis and careful clinical management are essential for increasing patient survival.

Dengue is an emerging disease that is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics, with more than one-third of the world’s population living in areas at risk of transmission (2). Currently, there is no antiviral therapy for the treatment of dengue or severe dengue disease. Prophylactic vaccines are in development and the first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) a live recombinant tetravalent vaccine by Sanofi Pasteur, was licensed in Mexico in December 2015, with several other vaccine candidates in clinical or pre-clinical stages of development (3).

Early diagnosis of dengue and dengue serotypes is a vital step in patient management. However, many of the proteins expressed by Flaviruses are very similar, and serological testing for these viruses can be complicated by problems of cross-reactivity. In this context, the use of highly purified antigens, that are glycosylated and folded as native proteins can be highly important in the development of accurate immunoassays.

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO) – Dengue and severe dengue
  2. WHO – Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control (2009)
  3. WHO – Dengue vaccine research

Dengue Antigens

We offer an extensive range of Dengue virus antigens, all expressed as recombinant proteins in our mammalian expression system.

NS1 proteins are available from all four serotypes. These were the world’s first commercially available mammalian expressed NS1 proteins. These proteins are fully glycosylated and are in hexameric format.

We also offer a full panel of Dengue Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are intact particles comprising 180 copies of Envelope and prM/M proteins. These have been extensively analysed by Metz et al in 2018, demonstrating that they are antigenically similar to native Dengue virus.

Complementing both NS1 and VLP proteins, are a panel of soluble Dengue virus Envelope proteins

Dengue Antibodies

At The Native Antigen Company we are pleased to offer a full panel of serotype specific antibodies to Dengue NS1, which are suitable for the development of serotype specific immunoassays. These antibodies have been raised against our well-known mammalian expressed recombinant NS1 proteins. They do not cross-react with other serotypes of Dengue, or other flaviviruses including Zika, Yellow Fever and West Nile.

In addition to the NS1 specific antibodies we offer a number of additional antibodies specific for Envelope and membrane proteins.

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